process by which either new waterways are created or existing waterways
are deepened is called as dredging. Dredging is carried out by using
special ships and equipment called dredges. Dredging is done through
various equipments like suction dredgers, bucket dredger, grab dredger,
backhoe injection etc.
Suction dredges operates by sucking through long tubes. In suction
inlet there is a cutter head to loosen the earth and transport it to the
suction mouth. The cutter can also be used for hard surface materials
like gravel or rock. The dredged soil being sucked by centrifugal pump
discharged through a pipe line or to a barge. In recent years dredgers
with more powerful cutters have been built in order to excavate harder
and harder rock without blasting.
Cutter suction dredger has following applications :
- Used in canal construction and maintenance.
- Clearing of sediments, dams and gravels from canals and dams.
- Removes sediments from settling ponds at an aggregate mining
- Used in mining and dredging aggregate material.
- Has utility in sand mining and coal mining.